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ORLANDO  BISEGNA  INDEX
Economic Crisis - Orlando Bisegna Index

When we say Economic Crisis we're not just referring to everything that derives from the negative economic situation, which started in the USA back in 2007 and 2008. That is to say the property bubble, the credit crisis and bank failures as well as companies in the credit business, we are in fact referring to all the negative global economic situations which can be identified as economic crisis.

Our research studies examine:

  • Receiving financial assistance for public finances of the country from international organizations, supranational institutions or other countries, on condition that precise economic and political conditions be respected, a spending review be done or that other austerity measures be put into effect
  • Strict surveillance of public finances of the country by international organizations, supranational institutions or by other countries
  • Freezing of financial assistance for public finances of the country from international organizations, supranational institutions or other countries, due to non-adherence to pre-established conditions
  • Burden sharing or other means of committing economically to bailouts of other countries
  • Risk of contagion of sovereign debt crisis from and towards other countries
  • Risk of contagion of banking crisis from and towards other countries
  • Risk of contagion of social tension escalations from and towards other countries
  • Risk of contagion of industrial production contraction from and towards other countries
  • Risk of contagion of credit crunch from and towards other countries
  • Risk of contagion of bursting of the property bubble from and towards other countries
  • Financial and commercial interdependence with countries that have been hardest hit by the economic crisis
  • Intensity and transfer time of the crisis from the financial markets to the real economy or viceversa
  • Reduction of government legislated minimum wage or minimum wage prescribed by collective agreements
  • Increase of VAT (Value Added Tax)
  • Index of tax increases and simultaneous spending cuts (fiscal cliff)
  • Index of household use of savings in order to face the economic crisis
  • Job cuts to public service employees and/or public service employee salary cuts
  • Increase of retirement age
  • Cuts to education, health care, public transport, justice or defence for economic reasons
  • Cuts to tax expenditures
  • Sovereign default
  • Sovereign bailout
  • Bank bailouts
  • Sovereign debt restructuring
  • Receiving financial assistance on public debt due to difficulties in financing the public debt on the markets
  • Level of costs of public debt financing
  • Public debt as a percentage of GDP, level of deficit or surplus
  • Economic difficulties of local governments
  • Local government defaults
  • Bailout of local governments
  • Introduction of extraordinary, emergency or solidarity taxes due to the economic situation
  • Lowering of tax-free threshold
  • Cuts, increase freezes or cost of living adjustment freezes to pensions
  • Partial or total freeze on new hires and/or salary increases for public service employees
  • Abolishing, unifying or shifting of public holidays in order to increase productivity due to the economic situation
  • Reduction of vacation time and/or time off for trade union duties and activities due to the economic situation
  • Reduction or abolition of allowances, bonuses or severance packages
  • Increase of working hours without remuneration due to the economic situation
  • Cuts to financial assistance for workers who have lost their jobs or have remained unpaid
  • Cuts to local government budgets
  • Cuts to research, environmental conservation or cultural heritage
  • Cuts to services for people with disabilities
  • Difficulty in paying employee salaries in the private sector and consequently late, missed payments or payment in instalments of salaries
  • Late, missed payments or payment in instalments of salaries to public service employees due to the economic situation
  • Missed payment of pensions due to the economic situation
  • Stoppage of dispensing free of charge or partially free of charge essential medicines for economic reasons, eventually requiring the population to directly pay full price
  • Revocation of pre-existing pensions and/or freeze on new pensions due to the economic situation
  • Funds pulled by the government from its citizens' bank accounts
  • Lack of availability of essential medicines, health care services, materials and personnel for economic reasons
  • Lack of availability of essential electricity, natural gas and various fuels for economic reasons
  • Use of bartering due to the economic situation
  • Influence of the psychological factor on the intensity of the economic crisis among the population
  • Index of public opinion regarding efficiency of anti-crisis measures adopted by national government
  • Index of people suffering from depression as a result of reasons linked to the economic crisis
  • Suicides as a result of reasons linked to the economic crisis
  • Index of social tensions
  • Subversive actions
  • Index of store closures due to the economic situation
  • Sales or long-term leasing of cultural heritage, islands or public land due to the economic situation
  • Adoption of a new national currency due to the economic crisis
  • Devaluation of national currency